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Kidney stones (also called renal calculi, nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis) are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. Causes Of Kidney Stones: – Some medicines – Special diets, like a ketogenic diet that is sometimes used to prevent seizures – Obesity – Problems with how the urinary tract is formed – Metabolic disorders (problems with how the body breaks down and uses food)
A kidney stone usually will not cause symptoms until it moves around within your kidney or passes into your ureters — the tubes connecting the kidneys and the bladder. If it becomes lodged in the ureters, it may block the flow of urine and cause the kidney to swell and the ureter to spasm, which can be very painful. At that point, you may experience these signs and symptoms: – Severe, sharp pain in the side and back, below the ribs – Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin – Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
Kidney stones mostly affect adults. But kids and teens can get them. The lifetime risk of kidney stones is about 19% in men and 9% in women. In men, the first episode is most likely to occur after age 30, but it can occur earlier.
Diagnosis of kidney stone starts with a medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests. Your doctors will want to know the exact size and shape of the kidney stones. This can be done with a high-resolution CT scan from the kidneys down to the bladder or an x-ray called a ‘KUB x-ray’ (kidney-ureter-bladder x-ray), which will show the size of the stone and its position. In some people, doctors will also order an intravenous pyelogram or IVP, a special type of X-ray of the urinary system that is taken after injecting a dye.
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