Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA) is a major public health issue majorly seen among women of reproductive age. According to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of 2015-16, 53% of women in India have anaemia and even iron and folic acid supplementation programs have failed to curb this issue. Hence it is important to consume foods rich in iron and commercially available iron-fortified foods to reduce the risk of anaemia.
This is one of the major functions of iron. Haemoglobin (Hb) is a protein found in the RBCs (Red Blood Cells) which is involved in the transport of oxygen. Iron never exists in a free state. It either binds itself to protein or ligands. For oxygen transport, oxygen binds itself to iron present within haemoglobin and this leads to the formation of Oxyhaemoglobin. Oxygen carried through haemoglobin is utilized in the cells of the tissues.
Iron is required as a coenzyme for various enzymatic reactions. Oxidative phosphorylation is one such pathway that requires iron. This pathway is required for the utilization of nutrients to energy.